The District of Hateg is a historical and ethnographic region situated in the South –est part of Transylvania Huendoara county, Romania. The district of Hateg includes the depression with the same name, but within “its area of influence” there are also the settlements situated along Strei river upper course up to the river flowing out in Mures river. The district of Hateg is one of the historically richest micro- regions of Romania; here there are some of the most important architecture and archaeological monuments of the country. It is always in the District of Hateg where there was built one of the most ambitious hydro-energetic development works of the country. The zone is also known for the dinosaur fossils found here.
The district of Hateg is situated in Transylvania at the crossing point of this historical province with Banat and Oltenia. Strictly, from geographic point of view, the District of Hateg overlap the homonymous depression bordered by Retezat Mountains to the South, by Sureanu Mountains to the East and North-East, by Tarcu Mountains to the West and to the North, by Poiana Ruscai Mountains. Within these borders , the district of Hateg is located in the upper basin of Steri river, extending East- West over about 50 km and its width on the North –South axis is 30-35 km. From geographic point of view, the District of Hateg totally covers about 1,300 km.
The region is crossed by Strei, Rau mare and Galbena Rivers together with their tributaries. The economic and social capital of the district is Hateg town.
The access to the District of Hateg is provided by three “ gates” : from SImeria town along Strei river course, from Banat along Bsitra river passing by the Iron Gates of Transylvania and from Petrosani Municipal through Mersior –Banita pass.
From ethnographic – sociology and linguistic point of view , the district of Hateg is more extended as it includes also the settlements from Lower Strei River water shed up to the river flowing out in Mures River, and thus, the district includes Calan town , too.
The climate is temperate continental with marked differences of landforms natural setting, arrangement of mountain chains and valley corridors. It is a more humid and cooler in the mountains and warmer and less humid in center of city. The average annual temperature varies between -2 and -10 C degrees winter and summer, variates from 20 Celsius degrees to 10.
Rainfall varies between 700-800mm annually in the depression and from 1300 to 1400 annual mm in mountains areas.
The dominant winds blow with greater frequency from the west and northwest with a average annual speeds varying between 2-4m/s in the depression between 4-6 m/s on mountain ridges.
The first documented mention of Haţeg, namely that of the year 1247, is made on the famous Diploma of the Knights of ST John of Jerusalem. The settlement has a long history as it was the residence of the Romanian local princes even since the XIII century, who were included in the Principality of Litovoi; in the year 1404 it became a district and Roman camp , and in 1457 it became royal fortress which further on, was possessed by the Transylvanian princes. Since 1669, the locality was provided with autonomous magistrature, being represented by two deputies at the Diet and in 1764 it became a m ilitary town as there were established the Romanian customs officers company which main goal was to defend the Southern border of the Austrian Empire.
Situated at the confluence of Raul Mare River with Strei River, Hateg depression (310 m – 350 m a.s.l) it is located at the crossing point of three roads making the connection between the main regions of the South –West Transylvania.
The administrative territory of Hateg town , the only urban settlement of the whole zone, and which is also the social and economic capital of the district of Hateg, covers of surface area of 61.6 square kilometers including Nalat, Silvasu de Sus and Silvasu de Jos localities.
The natural background consists of hills and mountains looking like a natural fortress protected by Orastie Mountains to the East, Parang Mountains to the South , Retezat Mountains to the West and Poiana Ruscai Mountains to the North and it formed the nucleus of the Dacian state itself and of Roman Dacia as well. There also exist a rich water networks . The tourism potential of the zone is high and it has a strong impact on any passer-by by the beauty of these places and its people.
Twin cities of HAȚEG:
Bad Sakingen – Germany
Melle – France
The access to Hateg town is provided by the national road from Caransebes ( DN68) and by the national road (DN66) from Simeria or Petrosani towns. The nearest railway station is at about 3 km from the town, at Subcetate locality. The twon is at 40km from Deva, the county capital.
DISTANCE FROM THE AIRPORT
Haţeg – Sibiu (SBZ) – 136 km
Haţeg – Timişoara (TSR) – 175 km
Haţeg – Cluj Napoca (CLJ) – 190 km
Haţeg – Târgu Mureş (TGM) – 201 km
Haţeg – Bucureşti (BUH) – 374 km
Haţeg – Budapesta (BUD) – 463 km
After the fall of the 1989 political regime, the District of Hateg was strongly impacted by the failure of industry from neighboring areas: the steel industry of Hunedoara and Calan towns and the mining industry of Valea Jiului. In 2008, there was the highest unemployment rate of the entire county of Hunedoara: more than 1,500 unemployed in Hateg town. In August 2012, the County Agency for the Labor Force Occupation of Hunedoara reported an unemployment rate of 7,45%.
A significant part of the food industry was concentrated in Hateg, the food industry being a very important sector for the entire Hunedoara county (a brewery, a cannery, a slaughter , bakeries). Meanwhile, when these economic entities ceased their operations , the workers undertook professional reconversion training courses , but currently there exist again a high availability of employment in the fields where those workers got their first professional qualification diplomas.
During the last years, it was noticed an improvement of the economic environment. Thus, in 2006, Hateg was the smallest town of the country where a big retailer , namely the Tengelmann Group opened a supermarket – Plus Discount – as a result of 1.5 million EURO . investment . Currently, the store has been taken over by LIDL group. In 2007, another supermarket , namely SPAR was opened representing an investment of 2.2 million EURO. Later on, it was taken over by BILLA.
The most important economic activities of the area included the activity developed by S.C. HIDROELECTRICA S.A.,- Hateg subsidiary which coordinate the activity of the 12 micro-hydroelectric power plants of Raul Mare River and by S.C. HIDROCONSTRUCŢIA S.A. Rau Mare Retezat Subsidiary. Besides them, there exist some companies dealing with the liquefied gas filling , civil engineering, aluminium and PVC joinery works, forestry exploitation etc..
The foreign capital is represented by a French factory for snail processing (ROLUX) and an Italian company dealing with the purchase and processing of mushrooms (BOSCO AMICO).
The tourism has been also rehabilitated , particularly in the West part of the District of Hateg , in Rau de Mori and Sarmizegetusa communes where there have been built several tourism guesthouses. In Haţeg town there are 15 accommodation units. In the area, there are several chalets such as Gura Zlata, Râuşor, Pietrele and Rotunda (arranged for Ceauşescu).
The following natural protected areas cover totally or partly the territory of the District of Hateg:
According to the statistics mentioned by Hunedoara County Council, the road network of the Distcrict of Hateg includes 400 km of public roads and 300 kmm of urban and communal streets. In 2007 the ring road of Hateg town was brought into service and thus, the traffic of the sector Valea Jiului – IV Pan European Corridor (DN66) , was out of the town. As for the railways infrastructure , the most important railway is Subcetate – Pui – Baru –banita double electrified railway connecting the main route of Valea Muresului and Valea Jiului. The enarest railway station is at Subcetate at about 3 km from Hateg town.
„Water Highways” of the District of Hateg
Significant hydroenergetic arrangement works were performed along one of the main water courses crossing the District of Hategm, namely Rau Mare River.. The works were strated up in the yeares’70 and were completed only during the last decade of the past century.
The main objective of these works was the Gura Apei water dam, situated in Retezat National Park.
The water dam, situated on the route between Gura Zlata and Rotunda chalets is 168 meters high being one of the highest rockfill dams of Europe. The underground electric plant of Gura Apei has a 335 MW power.
Once Rau Mare River leaves the mountains, its water course was regularized as there were built several small size water dams and accumulation water ponds near Ostrov, Sânpetru and Sântămăria Orlea localities. Râu Mare-Retezat hydroenergetic arrangement work was one of the biggest hydroenergetic works carried out in Romania during the communist regime. Brazi colony was the central point of this work and it is situated at the place where the Rau mare River leaves the mountain..The topics of the movie entitled „Un petic de cer” ( A Patch of Sky ) (1983, directed by Francisc Munteanu) was inspired by the activity developed on this work site. The former huts where the workers used to live were rehabilitated and currently they are used as conference hall of S.C. Hidroconstrucţia S.A.
The most significant education institution of the District of Hateg is “I. C. Brătianu ”National College , which bring further the tradition of the high level training and education which started in 1880. Ion I. C. Brătianu sustained the necessity of building this edifice and paid a visit there on 15 October 1922 on his way to Alba-Iulia, where he attended the ceremony of Ferdinand and Maria crowning as king and queen of Great Romania.
Throughout the years, the education institution enhanced its activity in the education field becoming a famous center of Romanian education development center considering the professional training courses for its students: (tourism and nutrition, mathematics – informatics , philology, sciences, social sciences). There is a promp and successful response of the institution to the economic challenges, the labor force market dynamics and thus it became a supplier of educational services to meet the community requirements.
Under the reform circumstances,the College education policy tries to contribute to the integral and harmonious growth of the young students personality so that they acquire good scientific knowledge and develop their intellectual skills, the work technique and practical skills.
The high school institution concluded partnership relations with institutions, units and NGO’s of both the area and the country and from abroad as follows:
– local partnership: with the House of Culture, Police, Church, red Cross, Secondary Schools, Public Prosecutor’s Office, Retezat National Park etc.;
– international partnership with: “J. Desfontaines” High School (Melle, France) Montmorot (France ) Agricultural Vocational High School .
Also, the projects where the institution collaborated with the foreign associates (Osthjalpen Sweeden, and Teachers for tomorrow USA ) and the courier with Sweeden made “I.C. Brătianu” National College of Haţeg a well-known education institution.
In accordance with the 2002 Population Census , Hateg town together with the 11 communes totalized 40.000 inhabitants. Most part of the population is formed of Romanian people, but there also exist small communities of Hungraians ( totalizing 430 people), the largest one being in Hateg town (303 people). There are also Romani people totalizing 468 individuals. A particular case is represented by the dying Italian ethnic group . In 2002 there still lived only 37 Italians of a community which once ,used to be a prosperous and numerous one and which had come on these places from the North of Italy and worked as woodcutters.
„The District of Hateg represents itself all what is best and most beautiful in Ardeal Province.” (Ion Pop Reteganu)
„Among all the regions inhabited today by the Romanians to North of the Danuvbe, Banatul and Oltenia, and their common prolongation in the District of Hateg are the only representing a non-interrupted geographic and historical continuity of the Romanian people – a house where the Western and East countries gradually Romanized and indirectly even those across the Danube , the house removing the excess, but remaining always full.” (Bogdan Petriceicu Haşdeu)
„Here is the clear huge Retezat Mountain. Here are the mountains shoulders , the bottoms, , here is Hateg Valley.” (Aron Densușianu)
„There doesn’t exist probably in Romania any perimeter so restrained but which concdentrate so many places to be seen and admired.” (Adrian Andrei Rusu)
„The investigations regarding the formation of the Romanian people and language as well as the beginning of the Romanian state existence, have particular meanings in the District of Hateg.” (Radu Popa)
„The churches of Sântămăria Orlea, Ostrov, Colț, Strei and particularly from Densus are more important from spiritual point of view, than those of Moldavia as they certify the age of the Orthodox religion on the Romanian territory .” (Dorin Alicu)
„True masterpiece of nature” (Ion Conea)
„One of the most beautiful landscape of Romanian land poetry” (Ovid Densuşianu)
Petru from Ostrov, the first archbishop attested in the Romanians’ History in 1360
Filip More of Ciula Mare, the first humanist of Romanian origin (1478-1526), Catholic bishop of Pecs
Aron Densușianu, Academy member, literary historian and philologist
Nicolae Densușianu, Academy member historian and legal expert
Ovid Densușianu, Academy member, philologist and historian
Franz Nopcsa, paleontologist, one of the founders of paleobiology.
The town hospital of Hateg is situated at the central part of the locality and is the only hospital of the District of Hateg. By supplying medical services the institution meets the medical care needs of people spread over 55km. The hosptila supplies medical services for the almost 11,000 inhabiotants of hateg town and for both the rural population of the District of Hateg communes about 40,000 people and for the 50,000 tourists who are visiting the zone on annual basis.
The hospital of Hateg has been operating for almost 100 years , its first certification dating since 1914. Since 1981, the hospital moved to a new location where the patients benefit od modern rooms and best treatments, supplied by highly qualified personnel. Today, the hospital ( the only one in the whole county which benefit of a heliport which ensure a rapid connection for major emergency cases, with famous hospitals of both the country and abroad) has 140 beds distributed by the seven sections: Internal medicine, Cardiology , General Surgery, Orthopedia and Trauma, Obstetrics and Gynecology, Pediatrics and Neonatology , Ophtalmology O.R.L , Intensive Care and Emergency.